日語会話3出席登録時のクイズ(第1回から10回まで)

日語会話3は日本語学科2年生の1学期に開講している授業である。当教師は地理的制約により、オンライン形式で授業している。学生の出席は投票ツールで管理しているが、単に出席のボタンを押すだけでは記録の役割しか果たさない。そこで、毎回クイズの形式にして、回答すれば出席として記録することにした。今学期の授業回数に合わせて、クイズは三十数問用意してある。現在この学期は第6週目に入り、クイズも10回実施したので、ここで解答と学生の回答結果等をまとめることにした。 最初の10回には、第二言語を学習するために必要となるメタ知識を問うクイズにしたいと考えた。11回以降は、より日本語の知識を問うクイズにしたいと考えている。

1問目:8月30日(月)実施

文「私は大学生です。」が あります。
A:「私は」が主語で、「大学生です」が述語です。
B:「私は」が述語で、「大学生です」が主語です。

正答はAである。学生の回答はAが21名、Bが0名であった。文を分析するとき、もっとも基本となるのは主部と述部を認識することである(ここでは主部と主語、述部と述語の区別は気にしない)。日本語では、述部の後ろ、つまり文の一番最後が重要であることを折に触れて説明していきたいと考えている。

2問目9月2日(木) 実施

文「私は大学生です。」が あります。
A:この文は名詞述語文です。
B:この文は形容詞述語文です。
C:この文は動詞述語文です。

正答はAである。学生の回答はAが24名、BとCはともに0名であった。日本語の場合は形容詞述語文をさらに2つに分けて、ナ形容詞述語文とイ形容詞述語文として理解することが必要である。第2言語学習では学習の順序として、名詞述語文から学習を始めるのが良いと思われる。

3問目 9月9日木曜日1-2限 実施

文「メアリーさんは きれいです。」があります。
A:この文は名詞述語文です。
B:この文はナ形容詞述語文です。
C:この文はイ形容詞述語文です。
D:この文は動詞述語文です。

正答はBである。学生の回答はAが0名、Bが22名、Cが6名、Dが0名であった。「きれい」は「い」があるから間違えやすいが、イ形容詞ではなく、「きれいな」というナ形容詞である。

4問目 9月9日木曜日5-6限 実施

文「海で泳ぎます。」が あります。
A:この文は名詞述語文です。
B:この文はナ形容詞述語文です。
C:この文はイ形容詞述語文です。
D:この文は動詞述語文です。

正答はDである。学生の回答は27人すべて正答のDであった。比較的分かりやすい問だったと思われる。動詞述語では文末が「ます。」であるが、学生の発話では名詞述語等との混同が起きて「×泳ぎです。」などがよく聞かれる。

5問目 9月14日火曜日実施

文「今日は寒いです。」があります。
A:この文は名詞述語文です。
B:この文はナ形容詞述語文です。
C:この文はイ形容詞述語文です。
D:この文は動詞述語文です。

正答はCである。学生の回答はAが1名、Bが2名、Cが24名、Dが0名であった。

6問目 9月16日木曜日実施

「赤い花」という表現が あります。

A:「赤い」が修飾語で、「花」が被修飾語です。
B:「赤い」が被修飾語で、「花」が修飾語です。

正答はAである。学生の回答は27人すべてが正答であった。漢字が手掛かりになったと考えられる。日本語は修飾語が前で、被修飾語が後ろになる。

7問目 9月23日木曜日実施

動詞「作る」は「作らない」「作ります」「作る」「作れば」「作ろう」と形を変えます。
A:形を変えることを修飾と呼びます。
B:形を変えることを活用と呼びます。

正答はBである。学生の回答はAが2名、Bが25名であった。日本語は動詞だけではなく、形容詞や助動詞も活用するので、学生には「活用」という言葉を知っておいてもらいたい。

8問目 9月28日火曜日実施

AとBのうち正しいものを選びなさい。
A:名詞は活用しますから、用言と呼びます。
B:名詞は活用しません。体言と呼びます。

正答はBである。学生の回答はAが9名で、Bが17名であった。9名も誤答したのは意外だった。日本語の名詞は活用しない。単数か複数かの区別も表記上現れない語が多い。名詞は活用しないのであるが、活用語の説明のときに「連体形」の語を使うので、「体言と呼びます」という部分を学生に認識してほしい。

9問目 9月30日木曜日実施

文1「私は学校に行きます。」
文2「私はご飯を作ります。」
A:文1は他動詞文で、文2は自動詞文です。
B:文1は自動詞文で、文2は他動詞文です。
C:文1と文2は両方、名詞述語文です。

正答はBである。学生の回答はAが4名、Bが20名、Cが2名であった。文末が「ます。」なので、名詞述語文ではないことに気づかなければならない。しかし、そのような文法知識からの判別ではなく、動作を述べていることから動詞述語文であることが分からなければならないだろう。動詞述語文でも自動詞文か他動詞文かは主語や助詞の選択に影響を及ぼす。学生にまず認識してほしいのは、他動詞はその動作対象を「~を」で表すということである。

10問目 10月5日火曜日実施 

文「私は水餃子を食べます。」があります。
A:「私は」が目的語です。
B:「水餃子を」が目的語です。
C:「食べます」が目的語です。

正答はBである。学生の回答はAが0名、Bが8名、Cが18名であり、誤答が多数を占めた。日本語は他動詞文の語順がSOVとなる。SOVとは主語、目的語、動詞の順番で文が構成されることを表している。英語のSVOとの大きな違いである。目的語とは、動詞の動作の対象となる名詞のことである。学生は「私は」が主語であることは分かったであろう。残るBとCのうち、動作の対象となる名詞は水餃子である。動作の対象であることを表すために助詞「を」が使われることも理解してもらいたい。

最初の10問の回答解説は以上である。次回以降はより日本語特有の文法問題をクイズにすることにしている。なお、学生諸氏には気を付けてもらいたいが、この文章は報告文であるから、文体に「だ・である体」を使っている。学生の作文でよくないことは、「です・ます体」と「だ・である体」を混合して書くことである。作文するときは文体を統一するように、いつも注意しなければならない。

Walked Around, Took Pictures, and Came Home: The Same Pictures Again and Again.

These pictures look like all the same as what I had already uploaded here. I can not go far from my house under the restriction due to corona virus pandemic. I go out only for shopping food or just walked around my house in rural town in northern part of Japan, Niigata.

A tree is standing on the slope of river bank. And it is also in front of a Japanese Shinto Shrine. It is not that big tree. But I guess this tree has seen many village people for 2 to 3 hundred years or so.

The hall of worship of the Shinto Shrine. Actually, this was not the shrine that I played with my friends when I was a kid. My “playing ground shrine” is even smaller than this.

Flowers of crape myrtle are blooming in the shrine area. Since I have spent all my hours to make Power Point slides for online teaching, I think I have missed the best time of crape myrtle flowers in this summer.

I kept walking on a path of river bank.

I found a convolvulus flower. This is also a summer flower. I saw that the season for this flower was also about to end. We Japanese call the flowers of “morning glory” as “morning face (Asa-gao)” and call the flowers of “convolvulus” as “daytime face (Hiru-gao)”.

This is a view of my hometown, where I live now.

Far behind the river, I saw the ridge of Gozu Mountain whose highest point is 972 meters (3200ft).

I wanted to take a picture of trains running on the bridge. I waited for the trains’ coming. But that didn’t come. I knew that I could not take a good picture because of reverse light of sunshine. So, I stopped waiting and gave up the idea to take a picture of trains. I just came back home.

日本語学習:[イ形容詞]+[動詞]のときのイ形容詞の変化

illustration in which a person is turning the switch on to start air-conditioner

次のようなクイズを学生に出し、回答を得ました。


【クイズ】
友達に聞いてはいけません。教科書を見てもいけません。自分の日本語力で答えなさい。無記名投票ですから、名前は分かりません。安心して選んでください。明日の夜中が締め切りです。

A:エアコンをつけて、部屋をすずしいにします。

B:エアコンをつけて、部屋をすずしくします。


正解はです。回答数64のうち、正答は54で、正答率は84%でした。学習者には別途、学習年数ごとの正答率をDingtalkで示しました。正答率が高くてよかったのですが、「すずしいにします」を選んだ学生は、つぎのことが考えられます。

(1) 活用が よく分からないから、活用しないで使う。
(2) イ形容詞みたいな ナ形容詞「きれいな」の文で、
  例A:掃除をして、部屋をきれいにします。
 などを見たから、「いに・します」でいいと思っている。
この(1)と(2)はいけません(例Aは正しい文です)。

次のようにしてください。
・イ形容詞で動詞や他の形容詞を修飾するときは、「い」を「く」に変えてください。
  例B:イ形容詞「速い」+動詞「歩きます」
      → 速く 歩きます。
・イ形容詞みたいなナ形容詞「きれいな」「きらいな」「ゆかいな」などに注意しましょう。ナ形容詞で動詞や他の形容詞を修飾するときは、「な」を「に」に変えてください。
  例C:ナ形容詞「きれいな」+動詞「洗います」
      → 手を きれいに 洗います。

蛇足ですが、動詞「違う(ちがう)」をイ形容詞×「違い」だと思っている学生も多いです。

以上の記事は私の学生に向けて書いたものですから、あしからず。

Writing in an Air-Conditioned Room, Outside is Too HOT.

My another photo blog “LQ Laoshi’s Photo Gallery”(outside wordpress)


When I was a kid, summer heat was not as severe as today. It used to be 30 Celsius, or just a little above of it. But because of global warming, it often becomes 35 Celsius or higher in the height of the summer season in recent years. Today, too, the weather forecast is saying the temperature in my place will reach 35 Celsius. Heat is severe and sunlight looks harmful.

I remember it was the end of May when I got a message from the university which was saying that I had to teach Japanese literature reading class in the coming fall semester. Since I had heard of it, I had read a lot of books about Japanese literature. Because I wanted to teach the best of the Japanese literature that has 1300 years of history. Perhaps a foreign people may say that 1300 years are short, saying that other world major civilizations have longer histories also for literature. Yes, in ancient times, Japanese didn’t have letters/characters to write down and record our own language. But once Japanese learned how to write Japanese sentences, a lot of literary works were made and handed down to the late generations.

I designed how to teach and schedules of my Japanese literature class so that I could teach the whole history with the best articles. One of those articles that I really wanted to introduce was “Sarashina Diary” by a daughter of Sugawara-no- Takasue. It is not a lengthy book but a short and concise one. The diary is a memoir of a lady’s life in 11th century. It lively describes fun things and sad things that happened to her from when she was a girl to when she lost her husband in her later life. The interesting thing is that although it was written in almost one thousand years ago, there are a lot of things that can be shared with us living in modern times. I expect that many of my female students would like it.

In order to get a whole picture (though it’s literature), I borrowed a lot of books from the city library. I searched books on the city library’s website, reserved some books, and went to the library to get them. I also bought a scanner to take copies of books to make a textbook by myself. But last week, I got a message from a student (not from the university), saying that the class would not be held in the coming semester because very few students wanted to take it. I think what she said is right, although the chief of the Japanese department said to me he was not 100% sure. By that time I had already spent a lot of time to prepare for the class, but that was not enough. I still had to prepare for the level of teaching in the real situation. If the class would not be held, it would make my work easier. So basically I have to be happy for cancellation of my Japanese literature reading class.

As of today’s morning, I was borrowing 9 books from the library. Some were interesting even if I wouldn’t use them for the class, but I decided returning them to the library. Today “Heat Stroke Alart” is being issued to my area by the Ministry of Environment of Japan. So going outside is not good. To avoid the hottest hours, I decided to go there before noon with a parasol. A lady often uses a parasol under the sun, but it is rare for a man to do so. Yes, this was the first time for me to go outside with parasol.

I have a garden (a vegetable field? I don’t know how to call it) and grow many kinds of vegetables. I have to work at least one hour on the ground every day. These days I do it after breakfast; it is from 7:30 to 8:30 a.m. Although it is just an hour in the morning, I have got sunburn on my left elbow because of strong sunlight. Skin got red. So I wouldn’t like to expose my left elbow to sunlight. A long sleeve shirt cannot be a solution because of the temperature. I decided using a parasol of my mom.

Getting out of my house to go to the library and opening the parasol, I realized that one connection between the cloth and the tip of a beam was broken. But the biggest problem was that it is too SMALL to me. Yes I borrowed my mom’s parasol. It would be big enough for her, but not for me. If I stretched my elbow down, my sunburned elbow would get sunlight. So I should be folding my left hand with my right hand holding the parasol. It should have looked weird; A guy in 50 was walking holding a small parasol with both hands. Anyway, I went to the library and returned nine books two days before a deadline. Now I am typing this in a cool, air-conditioned room.

Photo taken in Niigata JAPAN

These are vegetables that I grew.

Photo taken in Niigata JAPAN

But I cannot grow watermelon. It is too difficult for a beginner like me. This watermelon was bought in a supermarket. A little past the best timing.

Online Teaching for Class 1837 (Conversation) on July 3, 2020

Date: July 3rd on Friday, 2020 from 13:40 to 15:10 (14:40 – 16:10 in JST)

Course: Japanese Conversation 4

Used app: Streaming was used at the first, and then Video conference was used i n the second half of the class. Both are the functions of DingTalk. Dingtalk’s BBS is also used to show the students some images.

Numbers of Students:

 – Attendance check by the students’ self-claimed input of “Shusseki” onto BBS : 26

  – Attendance check at the end of the class by the names appearing on the streaming show windows: 21

Class Activities:

(1) Review of the last class by PPT slide show streaming

  – The listening material taken from section 12-1 of “Dekiru Nihongo” in which Park-san says that she doesn’t feel well to her friend Yamaguchi-san.

  – The students repeated some practices for several expressions included in the conversation like the particle “-mo” for emphasizing how much it is, another particle “-shika” for emphasizing how less it is, suggestion “-tara douka”, and doing something A without doing something B “-naide,”

(2) Learning the new part of the conversation between Park-san and Yamaguchi-san.

 – Using Dingtalk’s function of video conference, the class learned the new part of listening materials that follows what we had learned. It included “-trashii” and “-naide,”

Homework Assignment:

– No HA.

Issues and Problems:

 This was the last class in the second semester.

Online Teaching for Class 1837 (Composition) on July 3, 2020

Date: July 3rd on Friday, 2020 from 8:00 to 9:30 (9:00 – 10:30 in JST)

Course: Japanese Basic Composition 2

Used app: Streaming of Dingtalk to show PPT presentation.

Numbers of Students:

  – Self-claming attendance on BBS by inputting “Shusseki”: 25

  – Attendance check by the submission of 60-question quiz at the end of the class: 23 

Class Activities:

 – Almost identical to the composition class on Tuesday for the class 1836. What was learned during the first and the second semesters were reviewed in the form of quiz with each having four selections.

(1) Speech/writing style of Japanese

 Japanese speech/writing style varies from situation to situation. You use honorifics to elderlies and teachers, polite expressions in public,  and casual expressions to your friends. Foreign Japanese learners often speak and write Japanese with mixing those different speech style. Further more, writing Japanese has clear distinction between “desu-masu” style and “Da-dearu” style. “Desu-masu” is also used in spoken Japanese but “Da-dearu” is usually only for writing.         

(2) “Da-Dearu” writing style for composition.

 So the important thing for the students to learn is that they learn to use another type of Japanese language style that is different from what they usually learn in their textbook. This has been continuing to be a quite big issue in the composition classes. Many students were sticking to “Desu-masu” even if I told them to write in “Da-dearu”. It seems that changes in language style to adapt the situation are beyonf imagination to the students. In order to measure how well or bad he/she operates “Da-dearu” style writing, all the parameters were taken into the quiz;

Past/non-past for tense, Positive/negative, and four predicates: Noun, Na-adjective, I-adjective, and Verb predicate sentences. 

And several sentences ending with auxiliary verbs were added. Those were of conjugation type of I-adjectives (ex. -tai) or Na-adjective (ex. -youda)        

(3) Proper uses of conjunctive particles

It is so important to learn many conjunctive particles in order to write a complex sentences. But most students can use only “-kara” and “-te/de”. Several other conjunctive particles were examined if the students could choose them.   

(4) Sentence ending to describe changes in time sequence

Expressions “te-iru”, “te-kita”, and “te-iku+guess” were reviewed.

 

 Homework:

  – No HWA.

Issues and Problems:

 The first class that I had as a Japanese teacher in university was the one for this composition class for 1837 class. Through the first and second semeters, I have learned a lot of things. I know that I haven’t had enough experience to teach Japanese language yet.   

Online Teaching for Class 1837 (Conversation) on July 1, 2020

Date: July 1st on Wednesday, 2020 from 15:30 to 17:00 (16:30 – 18:00 in JST)

<This was a supplementary class that was done in irregular hours>

Course: Japanese Conversation 4

Used app: Video conference on DingTalk. 16 png images were uploaded on BBS in order for the students to look at. In the meantime the teacher was using power point only on teacher’s computer screen. The PPT slide was used to show the teacher some scripts and to make it easy to play mp3 audio for listening activity. 

Numbers of Students:

 – Attendance check at the beginning

   : 20 students input “Shusseki” on BBS as their self-claiming attendances.

   : 24 students were confirmed to be connected to the video conference.

 – Attendance check at the end

   : 17 students sent me four sentences that were a task given to them.

Class Activities:

(1) Listening and comprehension

  This class used a listening material from “Dekiru Nihongo”. This activity was continued from the Monday class. It was taken from the section 12-1 on the beginner-intermediate book (Yellow) of Dekiru Nihongo. The conversation between Park-san and Yamaguchi-san included the following expressions:

  -1: Use of particle “-mo” to emphasize the extent that is big, many, frequent, and so on

  -2:  Use of particle “-shika” that is always followed by negative expression behind: This was also emphasizing, however, “-shika——nai.” emphasizes the extent that is small, little, less frequent, and so on.  

  -3: Suggestion “-tara doudesuka”

  -4: Doing something A without doing something B, “V1-naide, V2 suru”

The listening materials were segmented for these four expressions. In each segment, I did my teaching as follows:

  <1> Asking a student to describe the situation looking at a picture shown on BBS.

  <2> Listening to audio by playing mp3

  <3> Asking a student several questions to confirm his/her understanding

  <4> Rote exercise of the new expression (one of four listed above)

  <5> Listening again with showing the script of the conversation.

(2) Writing four sentences using the expressions of the day

  The students were told to write four sentences using four expression learned today. They sent them to me at the end of the class. 

Homework Assignment:

– No HA.

Issues and Problems:

  Of course the improvement is necessary for the above procedure <1> through <5>. This was not the best for students’ learning.

Online Teaching for Class 1939 (Listening) on July 1, 2020

Date: July 1st on Wednesday, 2020

– 1st and 2nd sessions from 8:00 to 9:30 (9:00 – 10:30 in JST)

– 3rd and 4th sessions from 9:50 to 11:20 (10:50 – 12:20 in JST)

Course: Japanese Listening 2

Used app: Video Conference and Streaming on DingTalk. Powerpoint were also used only on the teacher’s computer display. An excel spread sheet was distributed to the students.

Numbers of Students: 27

   – At the beginning of 1-2 session, all the 27 students input “Shusseki” on BBS as self-claiming attendance.

   – At the end of 1-2 session, 26 students submitted an excel spread sheet which was to fill the blanks and complete the table for basic verbs’ conjugation.

  – At the beginning of 3-4 session, 27 students input “Shisseki” on BBS.

   – At the end of 3-4 session, all the 27 students were confirmed their attendance by checking their connection to Video conference. After all, this day’s class was a kind of final examination. So no one dared to be absent.

Class Activities:

1-2 session:

– Oral examination: A student was called one by one to video call in reversed order to their student ID number. He/she pronounced some Japanese words. The teacher recorded audio. It was thought that this oral test could be finished in 1-2 session. But it didn’t. Only 17 made it in 1-2 session.

3-4 session:

– The rest of the oral examination: 12 students were called to the video call. One student was asked to do it again because the teacher had lost the audio data.

 – Teaching: The oral examination ended at around 10:40. The class continued to learn using video conference. The teaching was about expressions “V-te ageru” and “V-te morau”in order to know how to use “give and take” transitive verbs that needed not only particle “-o” but also “-ni”.      

Homework Assignment:

– No homework was assigned.

Issues and Problems:

– The issue is, you know, how to evaluate 27 audio recordings of oral test.

Online Teaching for Class 1836 (Composition) on June 30, 2020

Date: June 30 on Tuesday, 2020 from 15:30 to 17:00 (16:30 – 18:00 in JST)

Course: Japanese Basic Composition 2

Used app: .Streaming of Dingtalk to show PPT presentation.

Numbers of Students:

  – Numbers of attendance by self-claiming onto BBS: 25 students left inputs of “Shusseki”. Three students came late.

  – Numbers of attendance at the end: 26 students sent their answers for 60-question quiz.

Class Activities:

 “60-question quiz” : Since this was the last composition class in this school year, what we had learned was reviewed in the form of quiz. The quiz was to ask the following items:

 – Speech/writing style of Japanese

 – “Da-Dearu” writing style for composition. Questions covered the most of pattern of sentence endings for Noun-, Na-Adj, I-Adj, and Verb predicate sentences with parameters of past/non-past and positive/negative.

 – Proper uses of conjunctive particles

 – Some sentence endings to describe cahanges in time sequence like “te-iru”, “te-kita”, and “te-iku+guess” 

Homework:

No HWA. The students need to prepare for the alternative test for final examination on coming Tuesday.

Issues and Problems:

This kind of test should have been done not in the last class, but in much earlier so that the students could get a good feedback to improve their weaknesses.

Online Teaching for Class 1836 (Composition) on June 29, 2020

Date: June 22th on Monday, 2020 from 13:40 to 15:10 (14:40 – 16:10 in JST)

<This was a supplementary class on irregular time>

Course: Japanese Basic Composition 2

Used app: Video Conference on DingTalk. BBS was supplementary used to show PNG images that was the instruction for procedures of 1-minute speech and QA session.

Numbers of Students: 28

 – At the beginning:

     – Self-claiming attendance by the means of input “Shusseki” onto BBS: 28

     – Attendance check using the video conference monitor: 26

– At the end by sending photos of composition: 25

Class Activities:

  Each student made his/her one minute speech about tourism in a particular prefecture in Japan. This was done in the order of student ID number.

  There were question and answer times for each speech when it was ended. A student to ask a question was assigned randomly so that other students would try to listen to the speech. It is important to know how to ask a question in a conference where many people are gathering. So the teacher instructed the students at the beginning of the class about how to make a question in a conference.  

  The teacher controlled the progression of speeches. In order to give every students chances to speak, the time that one student could spend was getting shorter and shorter towards the end.

Homework:

No HWA

Issues and Problems:

 Most of students wouldn’t like to listen to other students’ speech. So I assigned a questioner randomly. All the students just made the same question that I prepared for them as examples. Some questioning students didn’t know what prefecture was talked. I should have recorded such an incident and reduced his/her score for grading.